Ptolemy

.. to the United States in 1871. In the United States he began teaching students that were either deaf, mute or both. He taught by the system called visible speech. This system, was developed by his father, a Scottish educator named Alexander Melville Bell.

It shows how the lips, tongue, and throat are used to make sound. In 1872 Bell founded a school for deaf-mutes in Boston, Massachusetts. The school later became part of Boston University, where Bell was appointed professor of vocal physiology. He became a naturalized US citizen in 1882. Ever since the age of 18, Bell had been working on the idea of transmitting speech.

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In 1874, while working on a multiple telegraph, he developed the basic ideas for the telephone. His experiments with his assistant Thomas Watson finally proved successful on March 10, 1876, when the first complete sentence was transmitted: Watson, come here; I want you. At the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, introduced the telephone to the world and this led to the organization of the Bell Telephone Company in 1877. In 1880 France gave Bell the Volta Prize, worth 50,000 francs, for his invention. With this money he founded the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.C., where, in that same year, he and his associates invented the photophone, which transmits speech by light rays.

Some of his other inventions included the audiometer, used to measure acuity in hearing; the induction balance, used to locate metal objects in human bodies. He also made the first wax recording cylinder in 1886. This cylinder, together with the flat wax disc, formed the basis of the modern phonograph. Bell was one of the cofounders of the National Geographic Society, and he served as its president from 1896 to 1904. He also founded the journal Science in 1883. After 1895 Bell’s interest turned mostly to aeronautics.

Many of his inventions in this area were first tested near his summer home at Baddeck on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, Canada. His study of flight began with the construction of large kites, and in 1907 he devised a kite capable of carrying a person. With a group of associates, including the American inventor and aviator Glenn Hammond Curtiss, Bell developed the aileron, a movable section of an airplane wing. They also developed the tricycle landing gear, which first permitted takeoff and landing on a flying field. Applying the principles of aeronautics to marine propulsion, his group started work on hydrofoil boats, which travel above the water at high speeds.

His final full-sized hydrodrome, developed in 1917, reached speeds in excess of 113 km/h (70 mph) and for many years was the fastest boat in the world. Area 51 Area 51, is it a government cover-up or does it just exist in the minds of some people? After researching it would be almost impossible to say it doesn’t exist. With all of the current information that has been leaking out and that Area 51 is in fact visible from the top of a ridge it must be there. Deep in the mountains of Nevada is a secret military base dubbed Area 51 for some odd reason. This secret base is not there according to government officials.

Area 51, is in south central Nevada 120 miles northwest of Las Vegas. It is between isolated desert mountain ranges and near the Atomic Energy Commissions nuclear bomb test area. If you look at Federal Aviation Administration pilot maps and charts you will not see it, all you will see is flat dry expanse of land called Groom Lake. Area 51 has many other nicknames such as Dreamland, The Ranch, The Box, Watertown, The Strip and The Pig Farm. This secret air base built on the now dried up Groom Lake was started in 1954, when the CIA gave Lockheed a contract to start designing and building a spyplane that could fly higher and faster than any other plane. They named this project U-2 and the main target was The Soviet Union.

Once built they needed a place to keep it a secret, the test pilot named Tony LeVier was sent off in a small plane to find a the spot. He chose Groom Lake for its remoteness and it being near the Atomic Energy Commissions nuclear bomb test area. This helped cover up the building of the runway, hangar and other buildings needed for the U-2. Many other things are said to have happened at Area 51, flight testing or the SR-71 and the A-12 in 1962. Covertly obtained Soviet fighters were hidden and flight tested here and the F-117 first flew from Area 51 in the early 1980’s.

New projects started during the Reagan administration and a replacement for the SR-71 called the Aurora began flying out of Area 51. Since March 1994 the Air Force has been trying to close off Freedom Ridge, Crisis Corner, White Sides and the Supplemental Hills that make up 4,000 acres of land owned by BLM that overlook Area 51. The government already seized 89,000 acres of land from BLM in 1984. There is already a formidable ring of security way off the base on public land to keep unwanted people out. This consists of a fence line monitored by solar powered video cameras and signs that say Use of Deadly Force Authorized.

There is one group of watchers that call themselves the Dreamland Interceptors. They come to watch the secret military aircraft and to see where tax dollars are going. These people camp on top of White Sides where they keep a look out or what they call bird watching. They use equipment like binoculars, spotting scopes, radio-frequency scanners, night-vision goggles, tape recorders, dark clothing, walkie-talkies and most important to them lawn chairs. At Groom Lake, most of what is needed like people, supplies and the aircraft being tested are brought in the expensive way, by air.

The large Aircraft are disassembled then delivered like everything else in a huge cargo plane. Civilian listeners have put two and two together and by using scanners they have followed the Boeing 737 jets to an airport terminal by a defense contractor called EG Corp. They flight code name is Janet, this base makes 10 – 12 flights per day. With that many transport jets it is estimated that 1,500 – 2,500 people work at Area 51. Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born on November 30, 1874. He is known for his courageous leadership as prime minister during World War II.

He graduated from the Royal Military College at Sandhurst. Winston served in India and the Sudan and became a correspondent during the Boer War. A daring escape after he had been captured made him a national hero. In 1900 he was elected to Parliament as a Conservative, in 1904 he switched to the Liberal party. Then in 1910-11 he worked for special reform with David Lloyd George as home secretary . Churchill’s role in World War I was controversial and almost destroyed his career. Between his problems with the Navy and his support for the disastrous Gallipoli campaign forced his resignation.

From 1917 to 1922 he filled several important positions, including minister of munitions and secretary for war. While he was a battalion commander in France, he joined Lloyd George’s coalition cabinet. After the collapse of Lloyd George and the Liberal party in 1922 Churchill was left out of Parliament between 1922 and 1924. Then he returned in 1924 and became chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin’s Conservative government. He showed conservatism by returning Britain to the gold standard and condemning the trade unions during a strike in 1926.

During the depression years (1929-39) Churchill was denied a cabinet office. Neville Chamberlain, who dominated the national government from 1931 to 1940 disliked Churchill’s idea for India to be self-governed and his support of Edward VIII To Churchill, Chamberlain’s association with Adolph Hitler at Munich in 1938 aroused suspicion. When Britain declared war on Germany in September 1939, however, Churchill’s views were finally appreciated, and the public’s opinion demanded his return. Churchill succeeded Chamberlain as prime minister on May 10, 1940. During the dark days of World War II that followed Churchill’s rousing speeches rallied the British to continue the fight. He urged his fellow citizens to conduct themselves so that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, This was their finest hour.

By good dealings with President Franklin D. Roosevelt he was able to get military aid and moral support from the United States. After the Soviet Union and the US entered the war in 1941, Churchill established close ties with leaders of what he called the Grand Alliance. He traveled throughout the war and did a lot to coordinate military strategy and to guarantee Hitler’s defeat. His meetings with Roosevelt and Stalin shaped the map Europe after the war. By 1945 he was admired throughout the world, even though Britain’s military role had become secondary.

Churchill was defeated by the Labour party in the election of 1945 because he ignored the demands for social change after the war. He made his Iron Curtain speech in Missouri, in 1946, it was the about the dangers of Soviet expansion. He was prime minister again from 1951 to 1955, but now his old age and poor health prevented him from providing good leadership. Churchill received a Nobel Prize for literature and a knighthood in 1953. Churchill resigned in 1955 and devoted his last years to painting and writing. He died on January 24, 1965, at the age of 90.

Following a state funeral he was buried near Blenheim Palace. The death of Churchill in 1965, like the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, marked the end of an era in British history. He participated in Britain’s transformation from empire to welfare state, and its decline as a world power. His true importance is the fact that with sheer stubborn courage he led the British people, the from defeat to a final victory in the greatest conflict the world has seen. Spanish-American War The Spanish-American War started when the United States waged war on Spain in 1898. It started because the war was fought in the Spanish colonies of the Philippines and Cuba.

The United State government got mad at the Spanish Governor because he sent many Cuban citizens to reconcentration camps. President McKinley tried to keep neutral but at first Spain would not pull out of Cuba. McKinley offered to just buy Cuba but that didn’t happen. The event that got the United States into the war was when the Spanish sunk the Maine, a United States battle ship. At the same time there were problems in the Philippines with the Spanish once again.

The United State government got angry at the Spanish governor-general Valeriano Weyler. Weyler had ordered many Cuban men, women and children into reconcentration camps. He wasn’t able to tell the citizens from the rebels and in these camps around 200,000 of the population died from illness and starvation. This upset American citizens. American President at the time, Grover Cleveland said if “the useless sacrifice of human life ” went on then the US would take action.

President McKinley took office midway through the conflict and he too tried to stay neutral, he even tried to buy Cuba to ” avert this terrible calamity” but his plan was rejected. In 1897 an attempt to settle the conflict was made by the Spanish prime minister, Prxedes Mateo Sagasta. Partial control was to be given to the Cubans, and the outrageous system of prison camps was to be abolished. But this wasn’t enough and they continued to try for complete independence. The Spanish Ambassador for the United States, Enrique Dupuy de Lome wrote a letter and it was published in the Journal and in the letter he called McKinley “weak and a bidder of the crowd..”.

This caused the ambassador to resign and this wasn’t any help to the relation between Spain and the US. Six days later the Maine, an American battleship was sunk off the coast of Cuba near Havana. Two hundred and sixty of the crew members were killed. US naval experts discovered that the blast came from outside the ship meaning it was sunk intentionally. The Spanish said that they had no mines in the area. The press or more reliable the yellow press “discovered” that Spain was responsible and they even found some diagrams showing how it was done. Congress took action and allocated 50 million dollars in war funds.

McKinley demanded that Spain give Cuba full independence. When Spain did not reply, Congress declared war on April 25. The expansionists of the nation were thrilled to get more land but their dreams were dazzled when Congress attached the Teller Agreement that left the Cubans in control after peace was made. With the war declared there was a huge demand for volunteers to become soldiers. There were only 28,000 at the time so McKinley called for 200,000 volunteers.

The hard part was to organize some 17,000 of those volunteers and the current troops into a usable and powerful force. These troops left in June for Cuba from Tampa, Florida. Supplies were low and the soldiers were given old wool uniforms, out dated ammunition, meager medical supplies and almost inedible rations. The group that probably helped the most was a group called the Rough Riders, these were once horse back soldiers but their horses were in Florida so they resorted to foot travel. This group took the hill overlooking Santiago. In this war there were also 4 units of African American soldiers to lend a hand for their country.

Four of these soldiers were awarded with a Congressional Medal of Honor. The Spanish-American War all started because Spain wouldn’t let Cuba and the Philippines run the way they wanted. Spain treated the people there very badly and all along the United States tried to stay neutral but after a battleship, the Maine was sunk while in Harbor near Havana the United States declared war on Spain. The United States didn’t have enough military personal so they got around 17,000 volunteer soldiers to supplement the force they already had so they could go to war. The expansionists got very excited about getting another territory so they could maybe add another star to the flag down the road. But the humanitarians in Congress attached the Teller Amendment to the declaration of war that did not allow this to happen.

The Spanish-American War is a war like most others the United States has fought in, it could have easily been avoided.